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Frustration is the emotional tension originated by the failure in obtaining a desired goal or finishing an act; so, it can be characterized as an emotional state produced in the individual when he cannot reach the desired objective.

The reactions to frustration are not only conditioned to the object’s nature or frustrating agent, but also on the individual’s personality. In general, the individual‘s response to frustration can be aggression, sadness, or depression.

Some psychologists link frustration to aggression. It can be directed towards the obstacle that prevents one from reaching the desired object or against oneself. It can be seen not only in adults but also in children. Some people believe that tolerance to frustration is a fundamental factor in the individual’s adaptation.

Many parents think that small children will have time to learn how to tolerate failure. They always approve or praise everything their children do. In this case, they make the mistake of creating an inadequate appraisal of their children’s actions, when the appropriate thing to do is to scold, not to praise them. This can lead to, in later ages, the children not being prepared to handle frustration, although, somehow or at some level, there will always be frustrating moments in life.

Children always want to get whatever they wish, but sometimes it is not possible to give it to them, nor is it always advisable to fulfil their wishes. For that reason, if you want to educate them well, sometimes it is necessary to deprive them of their wishes, if it is something that could be dangerous or the learning of an inadequate behaviour.

At this age, children always want to get all their intentions, and this is not always possible. It is then that we must teach them what to do when facing a failure, how it is possible to learn after an unsuccessful attempt. A change, a new strategy prevails, which will be used when making a new attempt.

To help them to resist frustration, nowadays called resilience, means to teach them to be able to cope with failure looking for another solution in all possible cases, or to understand the impossibility of getting something, something that perhaps can be obtained at another moment or by other means, but never from useless behaviour. In brief, to teach them how to react in the most appropriate way when facing a failure; this learning is not easy for a young child, and the teacher and the parents will have to work with the children to educate them in this matter, and they will have to do it with a lot of patience, certainty, persistence and serenity.


Summary of the activity: This activity consists of the reading of the fable "The fox and the grapes". The teacher will formulate some questions about the story. In the second part, the children will observe illustrations of the story and will tell the fable, ending it the way they feel more appropriate. Finally, the children in circle and guided by the teacher, will have a discussion about the characters of the story, and they will say what they would do if they were these characters.

Objectives: Teaching the children to act correctly when facing frustrating situations.

• Discussion 
• Observation 
• Questions and answers
• Elaboration

Material Resources: Illustrations and fresh grapes.

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
Reading the story: "The fox and the grapes"

Once upon a time there was a very hungry fox that was walking around looking for something to calm his hunger. Suddenly he saw a beautiful and leafy vineyard, and close to him there was a vine, with big and appetising bunches of mature grapes hanging from it, they seemed juicy and sweet. Immediately the fox began to salivate thinking about the delicacy he would have to eat.
"Grapes! Delicious, I am going to eat them... " said the fox. Then he got up on his back paws and gave a big jump to reach the cluster, but he could not touch it and because he was not able to reach it, the fox moved away to try again with all his strength.
The fox tried over and over again, with obstinacy, but without success: "Poor me", the fox exclaimed. The bunches of grapes seemed to him more and more unattainable, and heartbroken the fox started to go away, without thinking of any other solution to reach them.
Suddenly, he heard a noise coming from the top of a branch:
"Caw! Caw! Caw!”. An ugly crow was cawing, laughing at him.
- Fox, you are so clumsy! The ugly crow said.
Ashamed because of the little respect shown and his humiliation, the fox exclaimed: "These grapes are very sour, I don’t care if I can not reach them: I will be back when they are mature."
The crow laughed once again since the grapes seemed appetizingly mature.
While the impertinent crow continued cawing, the fox went away trying to comfort himself, and when the crow could not see him, the fox cried out of anger and desperation, because he could not calm his hunger and he felt embarrassed.”

Once the story is read, the teacher will ask the children for their opinion about the story:
Did you like the story? 
What did you like most? 
What did you like least? 
What do you think about the end of the story?

In the following days, the teacher will read the story again until the children learn it well, since in the next part of the activity they will narrate the story with the help of the illustrations.

2nd Part 
The teacher will ask the children to tell the story “The fox and the grapes " using the illustrations that will be displayed. The teacher shows the first picture, and asks a child to begin the story, then, he shows the second sheet and asks another child to continue, and so on until the sixth sheet. The end of the story will be optional and each child will create the ending he wants. The teacher must prepare some suggestive sheets with suitable endings for the story. He will have every child tell the ending he would give to the story.

Example of drawings that must be displayed: 
First: The fox walking with a searching attitude. 
Second: The fox sees a beautiful vine with appetizing bunches of grapes. 
Third: The fox jumping to get a bunch of grapes. 
Fourth: The fox getting up speed to jump again and try to get the cluster of grapes. 
Fifth: A crow laughing. 
Sixth: The fox, with an embarrassed face, walking away.

Optional sheets about the end of the story: 
The fox reaches the grapes with a twig. 
The fox, climbed on top of something, reaches the grapes. 
The smiling fox eats the grapes.

Finally, the teacher with the children will analyze among all the endings, which would be the best and why, always based on the proposed objective: To teach them to find the best solution when facing situations that could be frustrating.

3rd Part 
The children and the teacher in circle will talk about the story. The teacher and the children will have a critical discussion about the attitudes of the characters of the story "The fox and the grapes".

They will analyze the following aspects: 
• The incorrect behaviour of the crow.
• The incorrect behaviour of the fox giving up because of difficulties.
• The fox making obstinate attempts instead of looking for another solution to reach the grapes.
• The stupid pretext the fox gave to justify his failure.
• The crying attitude and desperation that could be avoided if he had reasoned the facts in another way, such as "today I could not but perhaps within a while or tomorrow I will be able", "I am going to get help", etc.

Finally, the teacher will ask the children: What would you do if you were the fox?

The answers of the children will be analyzed until the group finds a suitable attitude or attitudes in the situation introduced by the story.

The teacher will summarize the activity highlighting that a behaviour shouldn’t make one feel bad or cry, but to look for another solution, and if we do not find it, we should not feel hopeless, neither become aggressive, or act obstinately, but we should wait for another moment to solve the problem, or ask for help and advice from our parents, grandparents, teachers, etc. When the discussion with the children is finished, the grapes will be shared by all.

Observed conduct
They narrated the story with coherence and fluidity, demonstrating they got the argument.
They expressed new knowledge about how to behave when facing frustrating situations.
They gave good feedback about the characters of the story.
They criticized the crow’s role when making fun of the difficulties faced by the fox.


Summary of the activity: The puppet "Solomon" will be used in the activity. He will recite to the children the poem "The rose and the carnation" and later will ask questions to the children.

Objectives: To develop in children experiences on forms of behaviour when facing conflicting situations.

• Recitation
• Discussion 
• Questions and answers

Material Resources: Poem, natural or artificial roses and carnations.

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
Solomon, the puppet comes to class, salutes the children, and reads the poem: "The rose and the carnation"

“The rose and the carnation” 
The red rose was crying
because the carnation was crying.
The wind broke its leaves
that looked like honey.
You must not cry, the red rose
Told the carnation...
Your petals are beautiful
For me, they smell very nice
and if the wind takes them away
I will lend you mine.
At each one’s pace
the roses bloom,
the seeds sprout,
the butterflies fly.
The sun shines when he sees you,
The prairies sing
and the children shout:
- cheers for the spring!
(I. S.OF B.)

The puppet asks the children if they liked the poem.

2nd Part 
- Now we will talk, said Solomon, the puppet 
Do you know why people call me Solomon? Then, I am going to tell you:
- Solomon was a king who lived many years, but many years ago and was a great and wise person; his village admired him because of his wisdom, he was the wisest of the wise people. 
- I am not that great king, but I know everything and I find out everything, I am called Solomon and I know many things that I am going to tell you about this poem, but first, I want you to answer some questions:
Why did the red rose told the carnation not to cry? 
Do you think that the carnation should have cried? Why? 
What could the carnation have done instead of crying? 
What will happen when the spring comes? 
Has something similar to what happened to the carnation ever happened to you? 
Have you ever cried because of something that you have solved after you have stopped crying?

- Well, now it is my turn, said Solomon:

The carnation was sad and cried, but don’t you think that it could have avoided it? I, Solomon, believe that yes, because he had friends like the rose willing to help him, and you have seen that if he waited a little time, for the spring to come, he would have its petals back and be as beautiful as before.

You see that it is not necessary to cry, or hurry, to solve things. After saying this, the puppet distributes roses and carnations so, the children can give them to their mothers or grandmas.

Observed conduct
Their answers demonstrate their understanding of the message of the poem.
They told their experiences about the subject.
They related the message of the story to some of their own experiences.
They expressed support feelings towards someone who feels sad or bad.


Summary of the activity: The children will sculpt figures of clay or plasticine and will draw a model. Later they will talk about the final products of their activity (sculptures and drawings) that will be shown in an exhibition.

Objectives: To reinforce the knowledge the children acquired in the two previous activities.

• Observation
• Practical actions
• Demonstration
• Explanation
• Discussion

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
The teacher will remind them of the story "The fox and the grapes", they will talk about what happened in the story, the teacher will also recite the poem "The rose and the carnation" to them and will talk about what happened to the carnation.

Once they remember the contents of the two previous activities, the teacher will ask them to sculpt a bunch of grapes. A bunch of grapes will be displayed to those who want to sculpt it, and a rose and a carnation will be displayed to those who want to draw them.

The teacher will describe the bunch of grapes and the rose and the carnation, emphasizing their colours, number of petals and leaves, stems, etc., facilitating, in this way, the children’s work. In addition, he will explain the technique to sculpt the grapes and also how to combine the necessary colours to paint the rose and carnation.

2nd Part
The children and the teacher will select the best works, that will be displayed in an exhibition to which their parents can come. During the exhibition, the teacher will ask the children to tell their parents about what happened in the story "The fox and the grapes" as well as to recite the poem "The rose and the carnation".

Observed conduct
The drawings and sculptures (products of the activity) looked like the model.
When discussing the characters of the story and the poem it is clear that they have learned to analyze the conflicts raised.
They gave diverse solutions on the message expressed in the poem.
They understood the message of the story of the fox and the grapes, and expressed their solutions in their drawings.


Summary of the activity: The teacher will begin a narration and the children will have to complete it.

Objectives: To teach children the way to act when facing difficult situations to avoid frustration.

• Discussion
• Narration

Material Resources: Book of stories and poems. Illustrations for the poem or the narration.

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
The teacher begins to narrate a daily history:

- Once upon a time, there was a pretty girl who, when walking in the park, lost her small dog, then the girl started to: (the teacher stops and asks a child to continue) _________________________________________; and later, it happened that: (he stops again and asks a second child to continue) _________________________ and in the end: (the teacher stops again, and asks a third child to continue) ________________________________. At that moment the girl understood that (the teacher pauses and asks the fourth child to finish the story) ______________________.

Examples of how the story could be narrated:

Once upon a time, there was a pretty girl who, when walking in the park, lost her small dog, then she started to cry and to scream; and later it happened that she found the dog and in the end, she realized that she cried in vain. At that moment, the girl understood that she should not have cried, not without looking for her small dog.

It also could be:

Once upon a time there was a pretty girl who, when walking in the park, lost her small dog, then she started to look for it everywhere; and later it happened that she found it curled up under a park’s bench and in the end both were very happy. At that moment, the girl understood that she should have been more careful with her small dog, then she will not lose it again.

These are just examples since in reality the children will complete the story as they wish, although the teacher will help them not to miss the central idea.

2nd Part 
The teacher narrates another more complex story:

- Once I found in the street a hungry small dog. Even with all his efforts he could not reach (child): ______________ because it was in an enormous and deep puddle. After realizing how useless his efforts were, the small dog (child): _____ _____________________________________. It was then, that something unexpected happened (child): _____________________________________. Then the small dog understood that (child): _____________________________________ and in the end it happened that (child)__________________________________________.

Example of how the story could be completed

- Once I found in the street a hungry small dog. Even with all his efforts, he could not reach a little bone because it was in an enormous and deep puddle. After realizing how his useless efforts were, the small dog: left very ashamed.It was then that something unexpected happened: a boy, who saw it, ran to help him. Then the small dog understood that: he did not have to leave without asking for help and in the end, it happened that the very happy small dog ate the bone.

3rd Part 
The children guided by the educator will evaluate the way they completed the stories, considering in their analysis the treatment they gave to the conflict presented. From their evaluation, the educator can show the correct way to act in these cases.

Observed conduct
They completed the story in a coherent way.
When completing the story they showed possible resistance to frustration.
When completing the story they showed little resistance to frustration.
When completing the story they did not show any resistance to frustration.


Summary of the activity: With the children in a semicircle on the floor, the teacher will narrate a situation where the performance of two characters is demonstrated clearly: one that shows frustration with aggressive reactions, and another that defends himself from frustration. After explaining the situation the educator will allow the children to comment on the issue. Finally, he will ask the children: what would you do if you were that character? And he will ask them to describe their behaviour when facing difficult situations. Later he will complete the activity giving them the correct model of action when facing conflicts.

Objectives: That the children learn to evaluate their actions when facing certain difficult situations.

• Discussion
• Narration

Material Resources: 
Appropriate situations, written in advance by the educator. 
Illustrations for the different stories.

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
With the children in semicircle, the teacher will narrate the following situations:

Situation A 
Jose was a boy who stood out in the group, because he could draw and read better than the others. Everyone in his family and at school praised Jose, but he got sick with a strong cold, and could not attend school for fifteen days. It was enough to make his knowledge fall below his customary level and behind the rest of the other children for a while. This made him feel so bad, that he no longer wanted to go to school and his attitude towards the teacher and his friends was aggressive, talking back to them and he did not want to pay attention in class.

When advised by adults and friends to have patience, that it would be like this just for a while, he became furious and would not listen to anyone, if they insisted Jose would cry, because of anger and not because of any other feeling.

The children will give their opinion on the issue, answering the following questions:

What do you think of the issue, is it correct or incorrect what this character did? Why?

Finally, the teacher will give the right model of action in this situation.

Situation B 
Maria de Jesus, other girl of the group, stood out because she won all the running and jumping competitions that happened in school. She was preparing herself for an athletic competition that would take place soon. Everybody thought that she would be the winner, because nobody could surpass her when running and jumping, in addition, she trained daily.

A few days before the race, Maria de Jesus, who always came to school by bicycle, fell and seriously hurt her leg.

-What a pity, everybody said, she will no longer be able to compete; but the girl said to her friends: 
- Do not worry, I will be well soon, and if I cannot run now I promise you that when I get well I will train hard for the next competition, there is always time to win or to lose because in a competition there are people that are better than others.

The children will give their opinion about the issue, stating if this character’s behaviour is positive or negative and why.

2nd Part 
The teacher will ask the children to describe what they would do given these situations and evaluate their behaviour, and finally, he will give the correct way to act.

Observed conduct
They knew how to correctly evaluate the character’s actions.
They needed help to correctly evaluate the character’s actions.
They expressed what they would do when facing the given situations.
In their expressions it is noticeable that they have learned the correct way to act when facing the given situations.


Summary of the activity: This activity deals with a situation created by the teacher to evaluate the children’s reactions when facing a difficult situation. First he will get the group excited over a field trip to the amusement park, and in a second moment he will raise a problematic situation when telling the children that the trip will not happen. Later he will interview, personally and separately, each child to know how he felt and his thoughts on the issue. Finally, he will tell the children the problem is solved, and that the trip will take place.

Objectives: To check if the children have learned the correct model of behaviour when facing difficult situations to avoid frustration.

Procedures: Discussion

Material Resources: Situations created and written by the teacher.

Development of the activity: 
1st Part
On the first day of the week, the teacher will announce to the children that in the next few days they will go to the amusement park and all the preparations will be made for it: they will talk about the trip, the rides they will take, what they are going to observe, the transport they will use, the date of the trip, etc. During the whole week they will be checking the preparations for the activity, and the teacher will get them excited on what they are going to do, until being convinced that all or most of his students are anxiously looking forward to it.

2nd Part 
The teacher, on the previous day of the trip, will notify the children: “We will not be able to go because the bus broke down”.

It is important to register all the expressions of the children when receiving the news. Later, during free activities, the teacher will interview one by one, separately, to know how they felt when receiving the news about the trip cancellation and will register all their opinions. He will see if any child proposes any solution and, mainly, the chosen attitude when facing the failure of the expected trip.

3rd Part 
He and the children will evaluate their answers, expressions, and attitudes before the problematic situation. Finally, he will announce that the problem has been solved and that the trip will take place.

Observed conduct
They demonstrated little resistance to frustration.
They have understood the correct way to act before difficult situations.
In their responses, it has been observed the beginning of resistance to frustration.
Negative behaviour was shown because of the trip cancellation.